Introductory Chemistry


Unit code: CHEM10101
Credit Rating: 30
Unit level: Level 1
Teaching period(s): Semester 1
Offered by School of Chemistry
Available as a free choice unit?: N

Requisites

None

Additional Requirements

A-level Chemistry or equivalent qualification.

Basic numeracy and literacy (to GCSE or equivalent) standard.

Basic laboratory experience, including an awareness of units and errors.

Aims

To provide an introduction to the fundamental principles underlying all chemical phenomena, to engage prior knowledge and understanding, to introduce new concepts and establish a sound basis for further units of study.

This unit will include aspects of structure, bonding, molecular shape and reactivity, the distribution of energy in microscopic and macroscopic terms, and an introduction to the important physical parameters which describe the states of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).

Overview

Week 1 - Introduction to Chemistry at Manchester (Dr A K Brisdon and Dr F Mair)

(i) To encourage reflection on prior learning and to aggregate existing knowledge.

(ii) To provide an introduction to the ethos of university-level learning and teaching.

Weeks 1-5 - Dr A K Brisdon and Dr F Mair

Atomic orbitals and simple wavefunctions

  • Rydberg equation and H spectrum
  • Atomic orbitals in pictures; quantum numbers (n, l, ml)
  • Basic QM approach to wavefunctions: radial and angular terms
  • Many electron systems
  • IE, Zeff, c in multi-electron systems.
  • Effective nuclear charge, Slater’s rules
  • Pauling electronegativity

Introduction to molecular orbitals

  • Molecular orbital energy diagrams for homo- and heteronuclear diatomic molecules and ions
  • Introduction to symmetry
  • Use of SALCs for polyatomic molecules.
  • Walsh diagrams and linear vs bent triatomics

Valence bond approaches to molecular structure

  • Lewis structures
  • VSEPR
  • Hybridisation
  • MO/hybridisation approach to tetrahedral and square planar MX4 molecules.

Application of MO and VB theory

  • Orbitals of methane and XeF4 from SALC of AOs.
  • Pi-bonding, aromaticity and conjugation
  • Metallic bonding

Week 6 – Reflection and Consolidation Week

The module now splits into two streams: “Shape and Reactivity” and “Properties of Matter

Weeks 7-12 - Shape and Reactivity (Dr N A Owston and Dr J L Slaughter)

Molecular shape

  • Skeletal formula
  • Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic alkanes
  • Sigma and pi bonds in organic compounds and metal complexes
  • Resonance/delocalisation
  • Inductive effects
  • Hyperconjugation

Stereoisomerism

  • Stereoisomerism in molecules and complexes
  • Structural isomerism in compounds and complexes
  • Geometric isomerism
  • Optical isomerism
  • Molecular symmetry

Fundamentals of reactivity

  • Curly arrow formalism - electron movement (and distribution )
  • Heterolysis and Homolysis
  • Reactive Intermediates – Carbocations, Carbanions and Radicals
  • Electrophiles and Nucleophiles
  • pKa
  • SN1 and SN2
  • Fates of reactive intermediates

 Weeks 7-12 - States of Matter (Prof. M Anderson)

 Interatomic and intermolecular forces

  • Electrostatic interactions, short range repulsion  and the Lennard-Jones potential
  • Dispersion
  • Induction interactions and polarisability
  • Polarity
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Potential energy surfaces (PES) for intermolecular forces

Gases and liquids

  • Perfect gas equation of state
  • Non-ideal behaviour – van der Waals equation of state
  • Kinetic theory of gases: collision frequency, diffusion and effusion
  • Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular speeds
  • Kinetic energy versus PE as a function of temperature: formation of liquids and solids
  • Simple phase diagram for gas/liquid/solid
  •  The triple-point: sublimation and supercriticalit

    Learning outcomes

    Students successfully completing this unit should have developed the ability to:

    Summarise their current knowledge on given themes/topics from A-level/IB syllabus.

    Describe the basic properties of molecular orbitals and molecular bonds based on their current understanding.

    Describe the shape and orientation of atomic orbitals using simple diagrams of radial and angular parts of wavefunctions.

    Describe the atomic structure of atoms in terms of the occupation of atomic orbitals.

    Describe the periodic properties deriving from atomic structure, IE, effective nuclear charge & electronegativity.

    Describe the construction of diatomic MOs from LCAOs, to populate these with electrons and to predict bond order.

    Demonstrate the applications of MO theory to polyatomic molecules and to derive the MOs of simple, n-atom molecules (where 2<n<5).

    Apply VSEPR theory to a range of simple molecules and ions to obtain potential structures;

    Describe the concept of hybridisation (in the context of atomic orbitals) and to apply it to produce a conceptual model of bonding in simple organic and inorganic molecules.

    Apply molecular orbital (MO) approaches to predict and analyse the structures of simple molecules and ions.

    Predict the shape and geometry of small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density (VB approach and simple MO approach).

    Compare and contrast the usefulness of both VSEPR and MO approaches in a chemical context.

    Rationalise the preferred conformation of selected small molecules through consideration of electrostatics and stereoelectronics.

    Describe and classify stereoisomers through consideration of their shape and geometry.

    Understand bond-breaking (and bond-forming) events in terms of curly-arrow nomenclature.

    Classify species as electrophilic or nucleophilic through consideration of their bonding, and predict their observed reactivity.

    Describe and rationalise the outcome of reactions in terms of orbitals.

    Explain the shape of a simple interatomic potential energy diagram based on electrostatic interactions and short-range repulsion.

    Describe and explain the main intermolecular interactions and to discuss their relative magnitude in qualitative terms.

    Understand and apply the van der Waals equation of state to perform calculations on real gases.

    Explain the boiling and melting points of simple examples using PE diagrams and to describe the key features of simple one-component phase diagrams.

    Describe basic solid state structures for elements in terms of crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells.

    Describe the solid state structure of simple compounds (NaCl, zincblende) in terms of atomic lattices, octahedral and tetrahedral holes.

     

    Module Learning Outcomes

    On completion of this module, students should be able to:

    Predict the shape, structure and bonding in small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density, and relate this to observed chemical behaviour for selected systems.

    Interpret the states of different kinds of matter based on a consideration of the molecular or atomic structure of the constituents and simple interatomic and intermolecular interaction potentials between the constituent species.

    Knowledge and understanding

    Students successfully completing this unit should have developed the ability to:

    • Summarise their current knowledge on given themes/topics from A-level/IB syllabus.
    • Describe the basic properties of molecular orbitals and molecular bonds based on their current understanding.
    • Describe the shape and orientation of atomic orbitals using simple diagrams of radial and angular parts of wavefunctions.
    • Describe the atomic structure of atoms in terms of the occupation of atomic orbitals.
    • Describe the periodic properties deriving from atomic structure, IE, effective nuclear charge & electronegativity.
    • Describe the construction of diatomic MOs from LCAOs, to populate these with electrons and to predict bond order.
    • Demonstrate the applications of MO theory to polyatomic molecules and to derive the MOs of simple, n-atom molecules (where 2<n<5).
    • Apply VSEPR theory to a range of simple molecules and ions to obtain potential structures;
    • Describe the concept of hybridisation (in the context of atomic orbitals) and to apply it to produce a conceptual model of bonding in simple organic and inorganic molecules.
    • Apply molecular orbital (MO) approaches to predict and analyse the structures of simple molecules and ions.
    • Predict the shape and geometry of small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density (VB approach and simple MO approach).
    • Compare and contrast the usefulness of both VSEPR and MO approaches in a chemical context.
    • Rationalise the preferred conformation of selected small molecules through consideration of electrostatics and stereoelectronics.
    • Describe and classify stereoisomers through consideration of their shape and geometry.
    • Understand bond-breaking (and bond-forming) events in terms of curly-arrow nomenclature.
    • Classify species as electrophilic or nucleophilic through consideration of their bonding, and predict their observed reactivity.
    • Describe and rationalise the outcome of reactions in terms of orbitals.
    • Explain the shape of a simple interatomic potential energy diagram based on electrostatic interactions and short-range repulsion.
    • Describe and explain the main intermolecular interactions and to discuss their relative magnitude in qualitative terms.
    • Understand and apply the van der Waals equation of state to perform calculations on real gases.
    • Explain the boiling and melting points of simple examples using PE diagrams and to describe the key features of simple one-component phase diagrams.
    • Describe basic solid state structures for elements in terms of crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells.
    • Describe the solid state structure of simple compounds (NaCl, zincblende) in terms of atomic lattices, octahedral and tetrahedral holes.

    Transferable skills and personal qualities

     The following transferable skills will need to be used by students in order to complete this unit successfully:

    • Problem solving – the application of problem solving skills to analyse given data, propose solutions to authentic chemical problems and draw appropriate conclusions.
    • Communication skills – the ability to effectively and concisely convey answers using the appropriate chemical terminology/technical language, through discussion with peers, oral presentations and written work.
    • Teamworking skills – Through discussion of authentic chemical problems in workshops, tutorials and PASS sessions.
    • Numeracy and mathematical skills – the ability to handle and manipulate data using simple algebra, functions and calculus, the ability to correctly handle and convert data in different scientific units;
    • Investigative Skills – to be able to read and extract key information from scholarly texts, given information and the internet, and to be able to assess/critique the quality of the information sourced.
    • Analytical skills – the ability to interpret and critically evaluate data (and information).
    • Time management/organisational skills – the development of an ability to work to schedules and meet deadlines by working efficiently and effectively.

    Assessment methods

    • Written exam - 100%

    Recommended reading

     

    J. Keeler and P. Wothers, Chemical Structure and Reactivity: An Integrated Approach (2nd edition), OUP, Oxford, 2013 (ISBN 978-0199604135).

    P. Atkins and J. de Paula, Atkins’ Physical Chemistry (10th edition), OUP, Oxford, 2014 (ISBN 978-0199697403).

    J. Clayden, N. Greeves and S. Warren, Organic Chemistry (2nd edition), OUP, Oxford, 2012 (ISBN 978-0199270293).

    C. Housecroft and A. G. Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry (4th edition), Pearson, 2012 (ISBN 978-0273742753)

    Feedback methods

     Proposed solutions and real-time feedback in tutorials and workshops. Workshops will give students the opportunity to work through examples and receive in-class feedback.

    Worked examples in lectures.

    Online support materials include test exercises (formative assessments) that allow students to engage in problem-solving activities, with the provision of solutions and feedback.

    Peer feedback during PASS sessions

    Discussion of a specimen examination paper.

    Study hours

    • Assessment written exam - 3 hours
    • Lectures - 48 hours
    • Practical classes & workshops - 18 hours
    • Tutorials - 11 hours
    • Independent study hours - 220 hours

    Teaching staff

    Francis Mair - Unit coordinator

    Alan Brisdon - Unit coordinator

    Michael Anderson - Unit coordinator

    Jennifer Slaughter - Unit coordinator

    Nathan Owston - Unit coordinator

▲ Up to the top