Introductory Chemistry
Unit code:  CHEM10101 
Credit Rating:  30 
Unit level:  Level 1 
Teaching period(s):  Semester 1 
Offered by  School of Chemistry 
Available as a free choice unit?:  N 
Requisites
NoneAdditional Requirements
Alevel Chemistry or equivalent qualification.
Basic numeracy and literacy (to GCSE or equivalent) standard.
Basic laboratory experience, including an awareness of units and errors.
Aims
To provide an introduction to the fundamental principles underlying all chemical phenomena, to engage prior knowledge and understanding, to introduce new concepts and establish a sound basis for further units of study.
This unit will include aspects of structure, bonding, molecular shape and reactivity, the distribution of energy in microscopic and macroscopic terms, and an introduction to the important physical parameters which describe the states of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
Overview
Week 1  Introduction to Chemistry at Manchester (Dr A K Brisdon and Dr F Mair)
(i) To encourage reflection on prior learning and to aggregate existing knowledge.
(ii) To provide an introduction to the ethos of universitylevel learning and teaching.
Weeks 15  Dr A K Brisdon and Dr F Mair
Atomic orbitals and simple wavefunctions
 Rydberg equation and H spectrum
 Atomic orbitals in pictures; quantum numbers (n, l, m_{l})
 Basic QM approach to wavefunctions: radial and angular terms
 Many electron systems
 IE, Z_{eff}, c in multielectron systems.
 Effective nuclear charge, Slater’s rules
 Pauling electronegativity
Introduction to molecular orbitals
 Molecular orbital energy diagrams for homo and heteronuclear diatomic molecules and ions
 Introduction to symmetry
 Use of SALCs for polyatomic molecules.
 Walsh diagrams and linear vs bent triatomics
Valence bond approaches to molecular structure
 Lewis structures
 VSEPR
 Hybridisation
 MO/hybridisation approach to tetrahedral and square planar MX_{4} molecules.
Application of MO and VB theory
 Orbitals of methane and XeF_{4} from SALC of AOs.
 Pibonding, aromaticity and conjugation
 Metallic bonding
Week 6 – Reflection and Consolidation Week
The module now splits into two streams: “Shape and Reactivity” and “Properties of Matter”
Weeks 712  Shape and Reactivity (Dr N A Owston and Dr J L Slaughter)
Molecular shape
 Skeletal formula
 Conformational analysis in linear and cyclic alkanes
 Sigma and pi bonds in organic compounds and metal complexes
 Resonance/delocalisation
 Inductive effects
 Hyperconjugation
Stereoisomerism
 Stereoisomerism in molecules and complexes
 Structural isomerism in compounds and complexes
 Geometric isomerism
 Optical isomerism
 Molecular symmetry
Fundamentals of reactivity
 Curly arrow formalism  electron movement (and distribution )
 Heterolysis and Homolysis
 Reactive Intermediates – Carbocations, Carbanions and Radicals
 Electrophiles and Nucleophiles
 pKa
 S_{N}1 and S_{N}2
 Fates of reactive intermediates
Weeks 712  States of Matter (Prof. M Anderson)
Interatomic and intermolecular forces
 Electrostatic interactions, short range repulsion and the LennardJones potential
 Dispersion
 Induction interactions and polarisability
 Polarity
 Hydrogen bonding
 Potential energy surfaces (PES) for intermolecular forces
Gases and liquids
 Perfect gas equation of state
 Nonideal behaviour – van der Waals equation of state
 Kinetic theory of gases: collision frequency, diffusion and effusion
 MaxwellBoltzmann distribution of molecular speeds
 Kinetic energy versus PE as a function of temperature: formation of liquids and solids
 Simple phase diagram for gas/liquid/solid

The triplepoint: sublimation and supercriticalit
Learning outcomes
Students successfully completing this unit should have developed the ability to:
Summarise their current knowledge on given themes/topics from Alevel/IB syllabus.
Describe the basic properties of molecular orbitals and molecular bonds based on their current understanding.
Describe the shape and orientation of atomic orbitals using simple diagrams of radial and angular parts of wavefunctions.
Describe the atomic structure of atoms in terms of the occupation of atomic orbitals.
Describe the periodic properties deriving from atomic structure, IE, effective nuclear charge & electronegativity.
Describe the construction of diatomic MOs from LCAOs, to populate these with electrons and to predict bond order.
Demonstrate the applications of MO theory to polyatomic molecules and to derive the MOs of simple, natom molecules (where 2<n<5).
Apply VSEPR theory to a range of simple molecules and ions to obtain potential structures;
Describe the concept of hybridisation (in the context of atomic orbitals) and to apply it to produce a conceptual model of bonding in simple organic and inorganic molecules.
Apply molecular orbital (MO) approaches to predict and analyse the structures of simple molecules and ions.
Predict the shape and geometry of small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density (VB approach and simple MO approach).
Compare and contrast the usefulness of both VSEPR and MO approaches in a chemical context.
Rationalise the preferred conformation of selected small molecules through consideration of electrostatics and stereoelectronics.
Describe and classify stereoisomers through consideration of their shape and geometry.
Understand bondbreaking (and bondforming) events in terms of curlyarrow nomenclature.
Classify species as electrophilic or nucleophilic through consideration of their bonding, and predict their observed reactivity.
Describe and rationalise the outcome of reactions in terms of orbitals.
Explain the shape of a simple interatomic potential energy diagram based on electrostatic interactions and shortrange repulsion.
Describe and explain the main intermolecular interactions and to discuss their relative magnitude in qualitative terms.
Understand and apply the van der Waals equation of state to perform calculations on real gases.
Explain the boiling and melting points of simple examples using PE diagrams and to describe the key features of simple onecomponent phase diagrams.
Describe basic solid state structures for elements in terms of crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells.
Describe the solid state structure of simple compounds (NaCl, zincblende) in terms of atomic lattices, octahedral and tetrahedral holes.
Module Learning Outcomes
On completion of this module, students should be able to:
Predict the shape, structure and bonding in small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density, and relate this to observed chemical behaviour for selected systems.
Interpret the states of different kinds of matter based on a consideration of the molecular or atomic structure of the constituents and simple interatomic and intermolecular interaction potentials between the constituent species.
Knowledge and understanding
Students successfully completing this unit should have developed the ability to:
 Summarise their current knowledge on given themes/topics from Alevel/IB syllabus.
 Describe the basic properties of molecular orbitals and molecular bonds based on their current understanding.
 Describe the shape and orientation of atomic orbitals using simple diagrams of radial and angular parts of wavefunctions.
 Describe the atomic structure of atoms in terms of the occupation of atomic orbitals.
 Describe the periodic properties deriving from atomic structure, IE, effective nuclear charge & electronegativity.
 Describe the construction of diatomic MOs from LCAOs, to populate these with electrons and to predict bond order.
 Demonstrate the applications of MO theory to polyatomic molecules and to derive the MOs of simple, natom molecules (where 2<n<5).
 Apply VSEPR theory to a range of simple molecules and ions to obtain potential structures;
 Describe the concept of hybridisation (in the context of atomic orbitals) and to apply it to produce a conceptual model of bonding in simple organic and inorganic molecules.
 Apply molecular orbital (MO) approaches to predict and analyse the structures of simple molecules and ions.
 Predict the shape and geometry of small molecules, complexes and compounds based on orbitals and electron density (VB approach and simple MO approach).
 Compare and contrast the usefulness of both VSEPR and MO approaches in a chemical context.
 Rationalise the preferred conformation of selected small molecules through consideration of electrostatics and stereoelectronics.
 Describe and classify stereoisomers through consideration of their shape and geometry.
 Understand bondbreaking (and bondforming) events in terms of curlyarrow nomenclature.
 Classify species as electrophilic or nucleophilic through consideration of their bonding, and predict their observed reactivity.
 Describe and rationalise the outcome of reactions in terms of orbitals.
 Explain the shape of a simple interatomic potential energy diagram based on electrostatic interactions and shortrange repulsion.
 Describe and explain the main intermolecular interactions and to discuss their relative magnitude in qualitative terms.
 Understand and apply the van der Waals equation of state to perform calculations on real gases.
 Explain the boiling and melting points of simple examples using PE diagrams and to describe the key features of simple onecomponent phase diagrams.
 Describe basic solid state structures for elements in terms of crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells.
 Describe the solid state structure of simple compounds (NaCl, zincblende) in terms of atomic lattices, octahedral and tetrahedral holes.
Transferable skills and personal qualities
The following transferable skills will need to be used by students in order to complete this unit successfully:
 Problem solving – the application of problem solving skills to analyse given data, propose solutions to authentic chemical problems and draw appropriate conclusions.
 Communication skills – the ability to effectively and concisely convey answers using the appropriate chemical terminology/technical language, through discussion with peers, oral presentations and written work.
 Teamworking skills – Through discussion of authentic chemical problems in workshops, tutorials and PASS sessions.
 Numeracy and mathematical skills – the ability to handle and manipulate data using simple algebra, functions and calculus, the ability to correctly handle and convert data in different scientific units;
 Investigative Skills – to be able to read and extract key information from scholarly texts, given information and the internet, and to be able to assess/critique the quality of the information sourced.
 Analytical skills – the ability to interpret and critically evaluate data (and information).
 Time management/organisational skills – the development of an ability to work to schedules and meet deadlines by working efficiently and effectively.
Assessment methods
 Written exam  100%
Recommended reading
J. Keeler and P. Wothers, Chemical Structure and Reactivity: An Integrated Approach (2nd edition), OUP, Oxford, 2013 (ISBN 9780199604135).
P. Atkins and J. de Paula, Atkins’ Physical Chemistry (10th edition), OUP, Oxford, 2014 (ISBN 9780199697403).
J. Clayden, N. Greeves and S. Warren, Organic Chemistry (2^{nd} edition), OUP, Oxford, 2012 (ISBN 9780199270293).
C. Housecroft and A. G. Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry (4^{th} edition), Pearson, 2012 (ISBN 9780273742753)
Feedback methods
Proposed solutions and realtime feedback in tutorials and workshops. Workshops will give students the opportunity to work through examples and receive inclass feedback.
Worked examples in lectures.
Online support materials include test exercises (formative assessments) that allow students to engage in problemsolving activities, with the provision of solutions and feedback.
Peer feedback during PASS sessions
Discussion of a specimen examination paper.
Study hours
 Assessment written exam  3 hours
 Lectures  48 hours
 Practical classes & workshops  18 hours
 Tutorials  11 hours
 Independent study hours  220 hours
Teaching staff
Francis Mair  Unit coordinatorAlan Brisdon  Unit coordinator
Michael Anderson  Unit coordinator
Jennifer Slaughter  Unit coordinator
Nathan Owston  Unit coordinator